Then, the deputy undersecretary to the Colonial Secretary proposed "Tanganyika Protectorate" after Lake Tanganyika; the name was modified after a "junior official suggested that 'Territory' was more in accordance with the [League of Nations mandate]" and that was adopted. j) It brought manufactured goods some of which could not be produced locally. The island of Zanzibar was even taken as a part of the Sultanate of Oman, when Seyyid Said came to power in 1806, Omani interests in Tanzania began to increase. Abandon African culture and take up French culture. Direct rule provides for greater control, because a central authority makes all of the laws for another country, state or province. to preserve African political institutions. xxi). It presents divergent viewpoints in a readable fashion for concerned citizens with an interest in current affairs, while including ample notes and references to satisfy the academic reader. Lugard expected the co-operatives in Africa to avoid politics: It will go far to disarm misgivings and assure support for the co-operative movement that Mr. Strickland is able to tell us that in no country whateverwith the exception of Great Britainhas this movement taken part in politics or agitation. "Kilimanjaro", analogous to "Kenya," named after the country's highest mountain, and "Tabora", after the town and trading centre near the geographical centre of the country, were proposed and rejected. Thesis submitted for the fellowship of the Library Association, London, November 1987. The British in the colony had a Legislative Council (LegCo) which was established in 1906 and made all the laws that governed the colony. 1993. He admirably described the system as one of indirect rule by the chiefs through the sub-chiefs, who are little more than liaison officers Tanganyikas main objective after the war was to ensure that its program for economic recovery and development went ahead. . EMMY NOMINATIONS 2022: Outstanding Limited Or Anthology Series, EMMY NOMINATIONS 2022: Outstanding Lead Actress In A Comedy Series, EMMY NOMINATIONS 2022: Outstanding Supporting Actor In A Comedy Series, EMMY NOMINATIONS 2022: Outstanding Lead Actress In A Limited Or Anthology Series Or Movie, EMMY NOMINATIONS 2022: Outstanding Lead Actor In A Limited Or Anthology Series Or Movie. The Jumbes were generally poorly supervised and they, therefore, had a lot of power in the areas. We have seen how this idea of an alliance with the chiefs failed, at least in Tanganyikas case. This struggle to control parts of Africa by European nations was known as the Scramble for Africa. is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings But sitting behind them were the British Provincial and District Commissioners. In northern Nigeria and in Buganda there were long-established and powerful chieftainships. Executive power was exercised by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, and laws on matters with which the Stormont Parliament could deal were made by Orders in Council. Sisal, was especially valuable to rope production, and was one of German East Africas largest exports. Almost at once came a reaction to German methods of administration, the outbreak of the Maji Maji uprising in 1905. For the Haya themselves, the only channels of political expression still open were intrigue within an increasingly irrelevant Native Authority structure, or accommodation to an authoritarian, if essentially benevolent, European government. British officials like Cameron, Mitchell, and Bagshawe devoted inordinate efforts to translating the theory of indirect rule into practice. "Tanganyika" was adopted by the British as the name for its part of the former German East Africa. But as education spreads, the influence of the Europeanized native and of the press which he owns and controls and reads to village audiences tends to increase, and the peasant population becomes politically-mindeda phase already reached in India, and already becoming visible in Africa. The intelligentsia have the opportunity in this era of transition and adaptation to be of inestimable service to their country, or to clog the wheels of progress by causing racial animosities and preaching doctrines as yet impossible of realisation. In return, they were promised equal status socially, economically and politically as the other French citizens. Did Germany use direct rule in Africa? The colony was divided into smaller units and a local leader appointed to rule on behalf of the colonial power. In the main coastal towns, there was an Arab governor called a Liwali. This was highly resented by the local people in Tanganyika. direct rule. and England, the major partner, has never had self-government and, just like Tanganyika (whose name has been superseded by Tanzania with the addition of the qualifier mainland under the present government system) its affairs are governed by the union government. So, it can be said that the principal controls the agent. b) Some traditional political institutions were destroyed and replaced with foreign ones. Select 7 - The collapse of the local compromise, Find out more about saving to your Kindle, Book DOI: If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. In 1961, Tanganyika gained its independence from the UK as Tanganyika. In the aftermath of rebellion an imaginative Governor, Freiherr von rechenberg, initiated a programme of African cash-crop agriculture. Archaeological evidence attests to a long history of settlement in the area; by the 10th century ce, it was inhabited by Asian and Arab traders and Bantu-speaking peoples. Sir Donald Cameron, governor from 1925 to 1931, infused a new vigour into the country. Second, indirect rule was mediated rule . [5][6][pageneeded]. Both elections were won by the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), which led the country to independence in December 1961. In 1964, after the Zanzibar Revolution which saw the Arab rule of Zanzibar overthrown, Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar to become the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later became known as the United Republic of Tanzania on 26 April 1964. the name given to the system of governing Northern Ireland during the suspension of the Stormont Parliament from March 1972 until 1999. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. m) Foreign companies exploited resources on the continent. Search within full text. encouragement of African farmingcould work, and he promoted it; yet he was not prepared to risk alienating settlers (Iliffe 1979: 2778; Rodgers 1974: 978). During German rule in Tanganyika they used direct rule system thus faced a lot of resistances from Tanganyika societies such as Hehe resistance, Yao and Chagga resistance. (Lugard, 4th edn. By operation of law, the agent must follow the directions of the principal. It was officially acknowledged by the 1950's that indirect rule had outlived its usefulness, especially in those numerous cases where "the concept of a chief was absent". The imperial government had attempted to protect African land rights in 1895 but had failed in its objective in the Kilimanjaro area. Companies were used to exploit African resources Company officials were Brutal and corrupt pocketed the money and made colonies bankrupt Chartered companies Never consulted the home governments, Many were incompetent and . entity. The main leader of the independence movement was undoubtedly Nyerere, who led the party TANU, which was a socially diverse group which had shared demands for independence from Britain. In 1923, Philip Mitchell, at that time District Officer in Tanga, decided to run the Tanga government office entirely with African staff. The French citizens were only found in the four communes. This was welcomed by the small political class of Tanganyika as an object . The following year a presidential election was held, with TANU leader Julius Nyerere emerging victorious. Article 2 of the Covenant with the League of Nations, reproduced in, Indirect rule is identified with Lord Lugard, Governor of Nigeria 191219, although its roots can be traced back to British administration in India in the eighteenth century. He was the highest political figure in the colony. However, they did not put back any of the profi ts to develop the continent. Do Men Still Wear Button Holes At Weddings? This successfully encouraged the pioneer coffee-growing activities on the slopes of Kilimanjaro. However, the party became redundant as it was clear that Nyerere and TANU were going to win the battle over Tanganyikan independence. This meant that they appointed officers for their countries to rule on behalf of the home country. Many of the ex-German plantations were sold to European companies and mixed farms were given to new British owners. From 1895, onwards, exploitation of wild rubber was the main activity. In this respect the claim of the African intelligentsia is very weak (p. The Africans in Mozambique protested against the Portuguese. The chief item in the development program was a plan to devote 3 million acres (1.2 million hectares) of land to the production of peanuts (the Groundnuts Scheme). The most important of which was the Central Line or Mittellandbahn, which connected much of the country towards the port city of Dar es Salam. The journal has framed its vision of social justice with an understanding of the international dimensions of power, inequality, and injustice. The British, like the other colonial powers on the continent, believed that Africans would take a very long time to mature and be able to govern themselves. The British in the colony had a Legislative Council (LegCo) which was established in 1906 and made all the laws that governed the colony. Tanganyika in 1912 was poised for that struggle for control between European settler and educated African which has been a fundamental theme of the modern history of East and Central Africa. We shall say that a direct style of rule features highly centralized decision making while an indirect style of rule features a more decentralized framework in which important decision-making powers are delegated to the weaker entity. 2022 - 2023 Times Mojo - All Rights Reserved It was, however, to be twenty years before the possibilities, opened up by this alliance, were recognized. Tanganyika gained independence on Dec. 9, 1961, and became a republic one year later. Indirect control means any situation where one person is in a position to act through another person over whom the first person has control due to the legal or economic relationship between the two. Various names were considered, including "Smutsland" in honour of General Jan Smuts (denied for being "inelegant"), "Eburnea," "New Maryland," "Windsorland" after the British Royal Family's new family name, and "Victoria" after both the Lake and the Queen. Cultivation of several profitable cash crops such as cotton, sisal, coco and coffee were important to developing the colony as these resources were used for German consumers and industry. By 1905, the Germans had felt confident that their policies and activities had become very successful. This was not a colony, but a business empire or organization run by him. W. Morris-Hale, British Administration in Tanganyika from 1920 to 1945 (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Geneva, 1969), p. 284. Tanganyika's main objective after the war was to ensure that its program for economic recovery and development went ahead. Sanderson, G. N. Portugal was the oldest colonial power in Africa and was the last one to leave. The first elections to the unofficial side of the council (in 1958 and 1959), however, enabled TANU to show its strength, for even among the European and Asian candidates, only those supported by TANU were elected. On the contrary, the local people had many grievances against their rule. As more and more co-operatives were registered with colonial approval (and supervision) so the alliance between the educated and the colonial state was legitimized. French used direct rule- Assimilation . Likewise, the Germans in Tanganyika used direct rule as their system of administration. All work unless implicitly stated is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. What is the meaning of direct and indirect rule? Those whose harvest was poor were also punished since it was felt that they had not put in enough effort. words to describe a lake at night, what does the bible say about slandering a pastor,